As the CSOP business model uses the borrowing power of a corporation, it enables the participation of vulnerable consumers that have so far been underrepresented. Empirical studies (e.g. Yildiz et al. 2015) show that citizen energy models typically involve a homogeneous group of investors (male, aged 50+, well-off, highly skilled). Through their leveraged financing approach, CSOPs allow for the participation of societal groups threatened by energy poverty (typically low-income households like single parents, unemployed, pensioners, etc.). Like this, CSOPs are more inclusive than established business models.